Minggu, 14 Desember 2008

AFIKSASI LANGUAGE FOR SPECIAL DAWAN

INTRODUCTION


Every language in the world have their own characteristics - their own. Similarly, the language Meto (UAB Meto '), especially Diaelek Amanuban, the mother language (mother tongue) of the author's own.
What is shown in this paper is based on the simple understanding of the author as native speakers UAB Meto 'and supported by the opinion of experts. Therefore, all thoughts and opinions and explanations in this paper can not be generalized.
Finally, the author realizes that simple writing is far from perfection. For the criticisms and suggestions are still needed for the improvement of this writing, especially its predecessor have been writing about Meto language ', especially dialect Amanuban


Kupang, January 2008



























AFIKSASI LANGUAGE FOR SPECIAL DAWAN
Dialect Amanuban


I. Introduction

As a human language we need to communicate .. With the language we know., Through the language we understand. , In the language we understand each other, and also with the language we know each other.
So far this language is defined by experts as follows:
1. Language is a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols which permits all people in a given culture, or other people who Learned have the system of that culture, or to Communicate to interact (Finocchiaro 1964: 8)
2. Language is a system of communication by sound, operating through the organs of speech and hearing, among members of a given community, and using vocal symbols possessing arbitrary conventional meanings (Pei 1966: 141)
3. Language is any system or set of Linguistic symbols as used in a more or less uniform fashion by a number of people who are Thus enabled to Communicate intelligibly with one another (Random House Dictionary of the English Language 1966: 806)
4. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication (Wardaugh 1972: 3)
5. Language is any means, vocal or other, or of expressing feeling or New Thought ... .. a system of conventionalized Signs, especially words, or gestures She was that sort of fixed meanings
(Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language 1934: 1390)
6 Systematic Language is a means of the post of New choir or by the use of conventionalized Signs, sounds, gestures, or marks She was that sort of understood meanings (Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language 1961: 127)

From the definitions above, we come at a truth that language is different with one another. He based on different cultural owned by certain regions. Language is a system of sounds that have meaning like - like in accordance with social conventions as saying. Pei, (1966) cited by Brown (1987)
In the opinion of the author that supports all languages, ternasuk language Meto ', the language spoke by East Timorese, from the start, the region of the Middle East North Kupang. (Grimes, 2000),



Meto language 'has its own differences with the ethnic tribes that menuturkannya. The differences are clearly visible from how they menuturkannya. This is by Kushartanti et al (2005: 234) called the language variations that are generally caused by geographic factors, political, economic, social and cultural.
In this paper the author choose one of the dialect that manifested by people around the region Amanuban-East South Central. The author tried to elucidate and explain the layout of the word, especially afiksasi in Meto, especially dialect Amanuban
Afiksasi according to Nida (1967: 17) is the formation of words by adding noise on the main components or basic words, is good at the beginning of a word, in the middle, and at the end of the word.
Word, defined by Hornby (1955: 137) as a sound or group of sounds that the meaning and form one unit independent of the language. Words and then divided into two parts; basic words and then called morpheme free derivative of the word and then called morpheme bound. (Adrian, 1988: 58)
Tarigan (1987: 20) supports the opinion of Nida (1967) with the share afiksasi into three sections, namely:
1. Prefix (Prefix): sticking sound at the beginning of a word to form the basis of new words
Examples in the Indonesian language:
- + Now = me sing
- In food + drink =
- Ber + = road running
- Tar + = carry through
- Pe + = fortune teller
- Etc.





2. Flexion (Suffiks) sticking noise at the end of a word to form the basis of new words
Example:
- Mashur + I = mashurkan
- Embrace, an embrace =
- I take follow =
- Charity, was magnanimous =
3. Inset (infix): Pewnyisipan the sound of a word in the primary, to form new words. However, in the language Meto 'Amanuban particular dialect, no insertion (infix

II. Afiksasi dialect Amanuban in Meto '
Meto language ', according to Sanga et al, which compelled the language Dawan (1989: 1) derived from two words, namely: UAB, which means that the language, and meto which means people - people who live in the mainland. So Meto language 'is a language that manifested by people - people who live in the land communication in their day - the day, from the Ambenu (East Timor) to Kupang. This language consists of many dialects. as has been said previously that the differences are cultural differences in dikerenakan ethnic menuturkannya
In this paper, the author tried to elucidate and explain how the words - words in the dialect Amanuban formed, a process called afiksasi, its function, namely whether the change process afiksasi class word or not, and the meaning of the word is formed.

III. Type - Type Afiksasi In Amanuban-English dialect, Meto '
Afiksasi process in Meto, especially Amanuban dialect, generally with the same process afiksasi in other languages especially in English, which is understood by the author. In the process afiksasi, dialect Amanuban also recognize two types of process changes the word dipengaruhai by afiksasi.
As presented by Mathew (1974), that:



1. Afiksasi Inflektional
Additions in the form of a bound morpheme basis that does not change a word or a class known as the inflektional. (Mathew 1974). For example, the addition of bound morpheme-s / - ice on the noun to indicate the amount of more than one.
Example 1. - Book + s = books / books - books
- Student + s = student / students
- House, ice houses = / home - home
- Es + bus = buses / bus - the bus
, Etc.
Morpheme bound -s/-es also dilekatkan especially working behind the words that follow the third single subject.
Example 2: - Sit + s = sits / he sits
- Eat + s = Eats / he eats
- Go + ice = goes / she goes
- Study + ice = studies / her learning
- Etc.
From example - the example above, that the addition of morpheme-s and-es is not the word class. For example, in the first instance, before adding morpheme bound to get behind him, they are a noun, and noun, although still have to get the addition of morpheme bound in the back.
However puila with words - words in the second example. The basic form is the verb, and keep working even though the word is, get panambahan morpheme bound behind
Meto in the language of 'Amanuban particular dialect, the word of the changes infleksional more influenced by the subject of suitable objects. This case is similar kausastif. The basic form is bound morpheme dilekatkan is generally verb (verba) and adj (adjektiva). Example - this example is the sticking particle in the form of basic influenced by the subject:




NO
Subject
INVESTMENT POLICY
Prefix
Derivative

1. Verba 'ah' (food)
Au (I) 'ah' 'u' 'uah'
Ho (you) 'ah' 'mu' site was cool '
In (he, askuline / Feminine / banda) 'ah' and 'now'
Hi '(you, plural)' ah '' mi 'miah'
O (we) 'ah' 'mi' miah '
Hit (our) 'ah' ta 'tah'
Sin (them) 'ah' and 'now'
2 Adjektivca 'gold' (beautiful / handsome)
Au (I) 'sir' 'u' 'umas'
Ho (you) 'sir' mu 'mumas'
In (he, maskuline / Feminine / banda) 'sir' and 'namas'
Hi '(you, plural)' sir '' mi 'mimas'
O (we / us) 'sir' 'mi' mimas'
Hit (our) 'sir' ta 'tamas'
Sin (them) 'sir' and 'namas'

3 Verba 'tui' (write)
Au (I) 'tui' '' '' 'tui'
Ho (you) 'tui' m 'mtui'
In (he, maskuline / Feminine / banda) 'tui' n 'ntui'
Hi '(you, plural)' tui 'm' mtui '
O (we / us) 'tui' m 'mtui'
Hit (our) 'tui' t '' ttui '
Sin (them) 'tui' n 'ntui'

4 Adjectiva 'cereal bowl' (greedy)
Au (I) 'cereal bowl' '' '' 'cereal bowl'
Ho (you) 'cereal bowl' m 'mkom'
In (he, masculine / feminine / banda) 'cereal bowl' n 'nkom'
Hi '(you, plural)' cereal bowl 'm' mkom '
O (we / us) 'cereal bowl' m 'mkom'
Hit (our) 'cereal bowl' t '' tkom '
Sin (them) 'cereal bowl' n 'nkom'

In the example - the example above, the author senagaja separate ways adding afiks affected by the subject of suitable objects. However, can not explain why some use other forms of basic sounds that are influenced by the subject of suitable objects, such as-u-m, n-,-t, and some others get tekananan glottis, which is still influenced by the subject of suitable objects.

While the addition of sound - s-es in the English language to indicate the number is not known in the language Meto 'Amanuban particular dialect. To indicate the number of languages in Meto 'particular dialect Amanuban thus add suffix-nu, na-,-this.

The following table shows the distribution of morpheme - morpheme bound over
NO morpheme BOUND
(Suffix) INVESTMENT POLICY
(Nominal Freedom) formed
(Nominal plural) Where
(Single - plural)
(1)-this oil •
• Governance
• Feto
• Naof
• • Noah Oil'ini
• Tat'ini
• Feot'ini
• Naofini
• noahini sister / sister-sister
brothers / sisters Kaka
brother / brother-brother (pr)
brother / brother-brother (lk)
coconut / coconut, coconut
2. ()-nu
• Bie
Hau • • • bienu
• haunu cattle / beef-cattle
Wood / wood

(3)-na • Kulu
• pulisi
• behavior
• • lore kulna
• pulisna
• laukna
• mauna teachers / teachers
Police / police-police
Cassava / cassava, sweet potatoes
Poultry chickens

Changes in the form of a single plural in the dialect Amanuban also mengalamai process as metathesis by Karus Margaretha et al (1999:12) in their research on English Morphology Dawan. Changes occur when a single word nomina be nomina plural. The same thing also happened on the nomina words will be merged with adjektiva. For example, ume (home) + ana (small) will be the UIM ana
In addition, the addition of noise on the b-word work, which shows the action of the subject that causes people to other circumstances that disebabkannya example - an example in the following table can be explained:






Suffix
FUNCTION
Subject EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT
Basic derivative Where

(-b) Meunjukan
Actions
That
done
subject
cause
others
experience
circumstances
disebabkannya
Au '
Ho
In
Hi
Hi
Sin
Luki
SUSE
shellac
sesa
leko
troops
Ulukib
suseb
nalakab
sesab
lekob
nabalab disadvantage
pester him menyebrangkan
force
fix
provide
2. Afiksasi Derivasional
Addition of morpheme bound in the form of a basic change a word or a class known as the derivasional. (Mathew 1974). Process in the word change is the addition of noise on the basis of the class and then change the form of words was a basic class in other words, for example, the basic form with verba after dilekati noise or certain bound morpheme, and a nominal, or form the basis adjektiva, after dilekati with sound or a certain bound morpheme, then changed to par, etc.
Example:
A. Prefix (Prefix)
1. Prefix (Prefix) [a]
Type the prefix (prefix) has two functions. The first to change the verb (kk) a noun (kb), and a second to change the nature of the word (sister) to noun (kb)
The following table shows examples - examples that support the statement:
Type
Prefix /
Class word
Basic form
(Verba)
Word formation
(Nomina)
Function
Mean
[A]
- Kk



a sister [BISO] 'at'
[empty] 'cooking' (kk)
[ote] 'cut'
[ken] 'Shot'
[lenu] 'order'
[onen] 'do'a'

[moko ']' arrogant '
[mae] 'shame'
[to be] 'angry'
[gold] 'beautiful'
[pehe] 'lazy' [a'bisot] 'hammer'
[a'hanat] 'cook' (kb)
[a 'otes]' cutter '
[a'kenat] 'sniper'
[a lenut] 'principal'
[a'onen] 'pendo'a'

[a'moko ']' haughty "
[a maet] 'shy'
[a to'as] 'spitfire'
[a masat] 'my beautiful'
[a pehet] 'shiftless' Change-of-kk kb





A sister-change - kb showed the perpetrator and the nature inherent in a self -

Example - example of a word formed in the table above shows that the words form the basis not only get afiks but also the addition of the suffix essentially not intentional, but it is one that can not be separated. About the suffix will be discussed in other parts


2. Prefix (prefix) [ma-]
This particle-ma () has three functions. The first function is to change the verb to be noun. The second function is to show ownership, and the third function is to show the same act done by more than one person on each other and each other
The following table gives contuh - example of particle-ma () that the verb or a noun verba or nominal

Prefix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY
Derivative
Where
[ma-] Change
kk kb
• Toe
• Ken
• Tuf
• Top
• talu • matoes
• makenat
• matufus
• matopus
• • matalus fracas
• war
• boxing (n)
• this guide
• joining

The following table gives contuh - example of particle-ma ()
that showed ownership

Prefix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY
Derivative
Where
[ma-] showed ownership • Noso '
• Ume '
• 'Taka'
• Lone '
• Ama '• Ma'noso'
• maume
• ma'taka '
• Malone '
• ma'ama '• have clothes
• have a home
• have signs
• have a brain
• have a father

The following table gives contuh - example of function-ma (prefix)
which showed the same act done by the
more than one person, and each hit one another

Prefix
[
FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY
Derivative
Where
[ma-] showed mutual • nek
• lomi
• ITI
• Kiso
• tuf • Manek
• malomi
• ma'iti
• makiso '
• matuf '• smell each other
• mutual love
• Just click the picture below each other
• see each other
• at each other
The following table gives contuh - example of particle-ma ()
showed that passive

Prefix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY
Derivative
Where
[ma-] shows
passive
• deserted '
• lomi
• ITI
• Kiso
• tufu • mahana '
• malomi
• ma'iti '
• makiso '
• matuf '• cooked
• preferred
• dicubit
• views
• beaten

2. Prefix / Prefix (aka ')
This particle showed the work done by more than one person on each other and work
Example:
The following table gives examples - examples aka-particle ()

Prefix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY
Derivative
Where
[Just] showed each other but more than two people • Lili '
• tolo '
• I • akalili
• akatolo '
• • akatau each other off
• each other furtively
• frighten each other

4. Prefix / Prefix-ha ()
Prefix this work to change the adjective or adjective or a verb verba.
Example:
The following table gives examples - examples of particle-ha ()

Prefix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY
Derivative
Where
[ha-] Changing the nature of a word noun • Niki
• Putu
• tane
• nule
• • haniki lin
• haputu
• hatane
• hanule
• • halin freeze
• memenaskan
• strengthens
• refine
• fun

B. Flexion / Suffix

1. Flexion / Suffix-en ()
Ending or suffix dilekatkan this type of class in some words that basically shows' have '.
a). When dilekatkan at the end of the verb or verba will show that the work was already passed / have been implemented. In English this pattern, known as the verb form of a second. The difference is in Meto 'Amanuban particular dialect, not a time of emphasis
Contuh:
The following table gives examples - examples of particle-en () function showed that the work has been passed yasng / done

Suffix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY
Derivative
Where
[en-] shows the work that has been passed / is doing. Jobs referred to
• nao
• some
• moni
• simo
• • numb naoen
• maten
• monien
• simoen
• • lalien have to go
• has died
• have been living
• Instructors
• is so




b). When dilekatkan together with the prefix or particle-ma, the show will be passive and have been passed / have done
Example:

The following table gives examples - examples of particle-en ()
that combined with the particle-ma ()

Suffix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY
Derivative
Where
[ma-en] showed job yasng already passed / have done. • landry
• BISO
• nutu
• simo
• • deserted malol'oe
• mabis'oen
• manut'uen
• masim'oen
• • mahan'aen have been
• have beaten
• have sliced
• have received
• already cooked
c). When dilekatkan behind the pronoun or pronominal to emphasize that the definition alone will do the job
Example:

The following table gives examples - examples of particle-en ()
dilekatkan behind the pronoun


Suffix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
Pronoun BENTU
KAN
Where
[en-] emphasize that the definition alone will do the job • au
• ho '
• in
• hi
• O
• Countdown
• • sin auen
• hoen
• inien
• hien
• haien
• hitien
• sinien • I have a job own
• you have the work itself
• that he is working alone
• You have the work itself
• We have the work itself
• We have the work itself
• They have the work itself










d). When dilekatkan behind the figures to show that the addition has reached these figures
Example:
The following table gives examples - examples of particle-en ()
dilekatkan behind the figures


Suffix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
FIGURE BENTU
KAN
Where
[en-] showed that the addition has reached these figures
• mese
• nua '
• tenu
• ha '
• nim
• ne '
• • used to large meseen
• nuaen
• tenuen
• haen
• nimen
• neen
• • hituen have one
• have two
• have three
• have four
• have five
• has six
• have seven

e). When dilekatkan the adjective or adjective, it will show the 'something has changed into another manifestation
Example:





The following table gives examples - examples of particle-en ()
dilekatkan behind the adjective or ajekativa

Suffix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY BENTU
KAN
Where
[en-] shows that something has changed exist
• me '
• methane
• multiple '
• meto
• mnanu '
• Prophetic
• • Mina me'en
• metnen
• mut'ien
• met'oen
• mnan'uen
• tuk'aen
• • min'en have become red
• have a black
• have to be white
• have become dry
• have a long
• have a short
• have a good






C. Ending or suffix (-t / at) and (-s) as

Both ending or suffix has the same functions. That is discussed in the same section. Afiksasi process of this type of two ways, namely, adding the suffix (-t /-at) and the addition of (-s) as. Please note that there is no reason to be certain conditions in the establishment of the second particle as pembeda. Only native speakers know that. Function - its function is as follows:

a). to change the verb or a noun verba or nomina.
Example:
The following table gives examples - examples of particle (-t / at) and (-s) as
which alter the functioning verb or a noun verba or nomina

Prefix

EXEMPLARY FUNCTION
INVESTMENT POLICY BENTU
KAN
Where
[-t /-at]




the verb or a noun verba or nomina
• I
• ken
• mepu
• Want '
• chapter
• cents
• • Sit lomi
• kenat
• meput
• lo'at
• tripe
• senate
• • lomit song
• rifle
• work
• vomit
• help
• plant
• wanderlust
(-s) as the verb or a noun verba or nomina • tup
• tunu
• otu
• tof
• tufu • tupas
• tunus
• Otus
• tofas
• • tufus things sleep
• burning case
• burning case
• case embersih
I grass
• this fight















b). to change the adjective or noun adjective become or nomina

Example:
The following table gives examples - examples of particle (-t / at) and (-s) as
The work to alter the nature of the word adjective or a noun or nomina

Prefix

EXEMPLARY FUNCTION
INVESTMENT POLICY BENTU
KAN
Where
[-t /-at]

the adjective or noun adjective become or nomina • pehe
• makoe
• master
• cereal bowl
• mafu
• maunu
• • gold pehet
• makoet
• malinat
• throat
• mafut
• maunut
• • masat this lazy
• diligent case
• glad things
• p. avaricious
• this drunk
• mad things
• beautiful things
(-s) as the adjective or noun adjective become, or to nomina • '
• meto
• • some toas
• metos
• • some kick
• this skinny
• die case

D. Termination or Suffix-ah ()

Ending or suffix is working to change the verb shows a description of the word. Suffix - ah means more 'is, no more'. Suffix is still influenced by the subject, because sticking with the formation of this particle shows the extent to which the subject do the job
Example:
The following table gives an example - an example suffix) (-ah
dilekatkan behind the adjective and verb or

Suffix

FUNCTION
EXEMPLARY
INVESTMENT POLICY BENTU
KAN
Where
[en-] shows the extent to which the subject do the job
• uah
• om
• ntup
• mhake
• Soon
• Kiso
• nao • uahah
• omah
• ntupah
• mhakeah
• maenah
• kisoah
• • naoah only eat it
• only just come
• only sleep alone
• only stand alone
• steeplechase course
• only see
• only road course

IV. Closing

A. Conclusion

As the author of this paper a simple knot raised some sehun \ bungan with the establishment of the Dawan language afiksasi in particular dialect Amanuban:
2. Afikasasi in the process of language Dawan almost the same language
3. Many of the findings showed that the addition of afiksasi on the basis of each vary. Words - words in the class said the same could be experiencing a process of afiksasi differently although the same function. Or vice versa, the process is the same but different functions
4. There are also findings that infix but did not meet the criteria infix in the source - the source of Linguistics

B. Advice

1. The data were presented in the paper this is not the result of intensive research.
2. All that is shown only on the basis of the author as UAB Meto native speakers' language or Meto '
3. If you want to get the data and valid enough, the author should be given enough time




























Bibliographical


Adrian, A, (1986), An Introduction to Language and Communication. Cambrodge University Press

Brown, D, (1987), Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, 2nd Edition. Cambridge University.

A Echols and Sadily H (1975) Dictionary of English - Indonesia Cornell University Press

A. Hornby S. (1974) advanced the Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Cambridge University Press

Karus M. et al, (1999) Reports Results Penlitian Morfology English Dawan. Center of Development and the Development of English, P and K. NTT

Nida E, (1976) Morphology, the DESCRIPTIVE Analysis of Words, 2nd Edition, the University of Michigan Press

Sanga F (1989) Structure Comparison of English Language and Dawan. Publisher Undana

Tarigan G. H (1975) Morphology. Publisher University of Indonesia - Jakarta

Wardough R, (1972) Intruduction to Linguistics Here MC Hill Book Company

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